While there are exemptions to the requirement to disclose information, there is a presumption in favour of release. This means that institutions must justify decisions not to disclose. Exemptions to disclosure include information containing personal data (Q8), information subject to a duty of confidentiality (Q9) and information the release of which would prejudice legitimate commercial interests (Q10). In addition, and of interest to research, exemptions can cover information that is to be published in the future (Q12). In Scotland there is an important additional exemption for information being gathered in a programme of research that will itself lead to publication.
However, the exemptions are complex and subject to interpretation as a result of decisions by the Information Commissioners. Always discuss a request with your FoI Practitioner.